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The Maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) is a species of mammal in the Canidae family, and is native to South America. It stands out from its canine relatives due to its long legs and reddish fur; it has been dubbed as “the fox on stilts”.

Though it resembles a fox in appearance, it is not closely related to them; instead, it is more closely related to wolves, coyotes, and jackals. In this article we will explore the biology, ecology, behavior and conservation of this unique canid.

The Maned Wolf was first described by Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1775 based on specimens collected in Brazil. Since then numerous studies have aimed at understanding the biology and ecology of this species across its range.

Its distribution includes parts of Argentina, Bolivia Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and some isolated populations in Colombia and Central Brazil. The total population size is estimated at around 10-20 thousand individuals with an overall declining trend since 1950s due to habitat loss caused by human activities such as deforestation for agricultural expansion or urbanization.

Despite being listed as Near Threatened by IUCN Red List criteria since 2008, there are still many gaps in our knowledge about maned wolf ecology that need further investigation if we want to ensure their future survival in the wild. This article will provide comprehensive insights into these aspects of the species.


The maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) is a large canid native to South America. It is the only extant species in its genus. The maned wolf has several unique characteristics that separate it from other canids.

In terms of coat color, the maned wolves typically have red-orange fur on their upper body and blackish fur along the lower section. Their ears are long and pointed in shape, allowing them to detect even faint noises made by small prey animals. Additionally, they possess white tufts at the tips of their ears and may sometimes exhibit flecks of white fur along their backs or legs.

Maned wolves possess an average body size between 80 – 100 cm with weights ranging from 23 – 41 kg. They also have relatively long tails measuring approximately 40 cm in length which helps them maintain balance while running through dense vegetation cover.

This remarkable animal displays physical adaptations that demonstrate both predator and scavenger capabilities making it an efficient hunter as well as adept survivor under extreme conditions.

Habitat And Distribution

Building upon the characteristics of the maned wolf, its habitat and distribution are also important aspects to consider. The maned wolf inhabits a wide geographic range throughout South America’s grasslands and scrub forests. Specifically, their natural environment is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Peru.

The maned wolves live primarily in open areas with tall vegetation such as savannas or grasslands; however they have been known to venture into other areas such as:

  • National Parks
  • Wet lands
  • Tropical and subtropical forests

Maned wolves are solitary animals that prefer living alone away from humans. As mentioned earlier, they inhabit a wide geographic range throughout South America. Their actual distribution range covers most of Brazil, extending southward into parts of Bolivia and Paraguay, eastward through Uruguay and northern Argentina. In addition some reports indicate the presence of them in Peru although it has not been confirmed yet.

Due to human activity particularly deforestation for agricultural use, the habitat suitable for this species has decreased significantly over time. This has led to a decrease in population size resulting in fewer breeding pairs being observed each year within their native ranges.

To combat this problem conservation efforts have increased to help protect these animals along with their habitats allowing them to reproduce more successfully which would result in an increase in population size again eventually stabilizing the species numbers across all regions where they can be found naturally endemic.


The maned wolf’s diet consists of a wide variety of food sources, including small mammals and birds, fruits, insects, carrion and plants. This omnivorous species has specific dietary requirements that must be met in order to maintain good health.

The majority of their diet is made up of plant matter such as grasses, fruits and roots while they also consume large amounts of animal proteins from the rodents, rabbits and armadillos they hunt. They will feed on eggs or kill domestic chickens when presented with the opportunity. Maned wolves have been known to eat certain frogs and fish when available but these form only an occasional part of their diets.

In terms of feeding behavior, maned wolves are shy nocturnal predators who hunt alone at night using both sight and scent to find potential prey items. During daylight hours they rest in sheltered dens before emerging again after sunset to resume hunting activities until morning light appears. Their digestive systems require them to consume smaller meals more frequently rather than larger ones less often throughout the course of each day.

Maned wolves play an important role in maintaining balance within their ecosystems by controlling populations of other animals through predation; however this does not significantly alter their own dietary habits due to the diversity contained within their preferred foods list. Furthermore, it can be noted that human activity has not yet had a major impact on the diet or eating patterns observed in wild maned wolves living today.

Reproduction And Development

The maned wolf is a unique canid species that has adapted to life in the open grasslands of South America. Reproduction and development are an important part of this species’ survival, as it is necessary for population growth and successful adaptation to its environment.

During their breeding season from May to June, male and female pairs will engage in a courtship ritual involving mutual scent marking. Once mating occurs, gestation lasts approximately 63 days before pups are born. The average litter size consists of two or three young, but litters of up to six have been reported occasionally.

Maned wolves display extensive parental care towards their offspring; both parents feed the pups with regurgitated food until they reach five months old when they become independent enough to hunt on their own.

Pup survival rates vary depending on factors such as habitat quality and predation risk, however there is evidence suggesting that pup mortality rate increases following human disturbance in areas where the species inhabits. In some cases, juveniles may remain with the parent until they reach sexual maturity at around one year old if conditions permit them to do so successfully.

In summary, maned wolf reproduction involves pre-mating rituals followed by gestation periods averaging 63 days long which result in litters typically consisting of two to three pups per pair. Parental care plays an integral role in pup survival which varies according to environmental factors including human disturbance impacts.

Conservation Status

The maned wolf is classified as a Near Threatened species on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. As one of around 3,000 endangered species, the conservation of this unique canid requires attention and effort from both governmental agencies and private citizens. In order to protect wild populations of maned wolves, conservation efforts have been focused on habitat protection in areas that are historically occupied by these animals.

This includes creating protected reserves where hunting and trapping is prohibited, as well as promoting reforestation projects along with environmental education programs for local communities near known habitats of maned wolves.

Despite such efforts, population numbers continue to decline due to loss or fragmentation of their natural habitats caused by deforestation and agricultural activities. In addition, human-caused mortality resulting from road accidents, poisoning, illegal killing and snaring also contribute significantly to their ongoing population decline.

To mitigate against further losses in wild populations it has become increasingly necessary to implement captive breeding programs so that individuals might be released back into the wild when feasible.

Captive breeding centers have been established in several countries including Brazil, Colombia and Argentina. These facilities provide an opportunity for research into how best to protect the species from further decline while simultaneously providing resources for reintroduction programmes if possible at some point in the future.

The success rate for such initiatives will depend upon continued support from governments and stakeholders who must work together towards successful outcomes that maintain healthy populations of maned wolves in their native ranges across South America.

Interaction With Humans

The maned wolf is a wild canid that has adapted to living in close proximity to human populations. Although the species avoids direct contact with humans, it will often scavenge from rubbish dumps or consume food left out by people. In addition, encounters between humans and maned wolves are not uncommon as many of their habitats overlap with rural residential areas.

Maned wolf behavior towards humans varies based on their level of familiarity with people; those individuals who have been habituated may be more tolerant than those which remain wary of them. In some cases, they may even approach humans if they anticipate being given food.

While such behavior should never be encouraged, there are several methods now available for mitigating potential conflicts between people and this species while also protecting both parties. These include fencing off gardens and fields where crops are grown to prevent access by maned wolves, avoiding leaving out any kind of food source that could attract them, and ensuring livestock pens are enclosed properly at night time.

Myths surrounding the domestication of this species persist due its unique physical characteristics—namely its long legs—and its solitary nature compared to other canids. However, these traits make maned wolves unsuitable for domestic life; their shyness around people makes them difficult to train and handle, while their large size leads to difficulties when transporting or housing them indoors.

As such, despite interest in doing so historically, attempts at taming maned wolves have largely failed thus far.

In order to ensure protection for this species going forward into the future it is important that conservation efforts focus on reducing habitat destruction caused by development projects and agricultural activities in regions where they exist naturally in the wild. It is only through taking these measures that we can hope to better protect the maned wolf’s population numbers and continue preserving its natural habits across South America indefinitely.

Threats To Survival

The maned wolf is a vulnerable species, with the main threats to its survival being predation, hunting and habitat-loss. Predation of this species is mainly caused by larger carnivores such as pumas or jaguars. Hunting takes place both legally and illegally in some parts of South America, where they are hunted for their fur, meat and even organs which have been said to have medicinal properties. In addition to legal and illegal hunting, road-kills also contribute to mortality rates among maned wolves.

Habitat loss is another major threat that affects the population size of these animals. This can be due to human activity such as deforestation for agricultural purposes or urban growth. Furthermore, climate change may cause a shift in suitable habitats for the maned wolf leading to further population decline if not mitigated against.
Maned wolves are at risk from multiple factors; however conservation efforts can help protect them from extinction. Education campaigns could be employed alongside legislation enforcement so that local communities understand why it is important keep their populations stable within an area. Additionally, captive breeding programmes should be implemented in order to increase the numbers of wild individuals released back into natural areas over time.


Maned wolves are unique and remarkable animals, inhabiting the open grasslands of South America. Although their appearance suggests a close relationship to foxes, maned wolves are actually the only living members of their genus. Despite being the tallest species of wild canid in the world, these animals remain elusive due to their reclusive nature and wide distribution across several countries.

The diet of this animal consists mainly of small mammals, fruits, and insects found on the ground or low-lying vegetation. Breeding occurs during the wet season with litters typically consisting of two pups per litter. They reach sexual maturity at an average age of 20 months and have been known to live up to 12 years in captivity.

Unfortunately, maned wolf populations are declining due to human activities such as road mortality, habitat fragmentation caused by deforestation and agricultural expansion, hunting for traditional medicine purposes, and illegal pet trade operations. Conservation efforts must be taken into account if we wish to secure a future for this fascinating creature that has an important place within its ecosystem.